') seabed - abiss publications


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abiss publications


Abstracts of journal papers, conference papers, articles, invited lectures and posters which have been published by the Abiss team in the course of the developement of this system



journal papers


Parry, D.M., Kendall, M.A., Pilgrim, D.A., and Jones, M.B. (2003) Identification of patch structures within marine benthic landscapes using a remotely operated vehicle.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 285–286, 497–511. 


Parry, D.M., Nickell, L.A., Kendall, M.A., Burrows, M.T., Pilgrim, D.A., Jones, M.B. (2002) Comparison of abundance and spatial distribution of burrowing megafauna from diver and Remotely Operated Vehicle observations.
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 244, 89–93


Pilgrim, D.A., Parry, D.M., Jones, M.B. and Kendall, M.A. (2000) ROV image scaling with laser spot patterns
. Underwater Technology, 24(3), 93-103.

Abstract
The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) by ocean scientists has increased significantly during the last decade. Of particular value and interest is the acquisition and analysis of subsea video images to obtain accurate measurements of seabed features, biota and man-made artefacts. Video images obtained by ROVs have a variable perspective and scale but this problem may be solved by the use of structured lighting comprising an array of diode lasers. A DOE Phantom XTL ROV has been fitted with a 5-spots diode laser system at the University of Plymouth, and has been deployed in research programmes in Plymouth Sound and the River Dart. An important aspect of these programmes is the development and perfection of verifiable measurement and sampling techniques, which may then be employed with confidence in inaccessible and hostile waters.


Parry, D.M., Jones, M.B., Kendall, M.A., Pilgrim, D.A. (2000)
Quantitative investigation of megafaunal distribution using remotely operated vehicles. Porcupine Marine Natural History Society Newsletter, 5, 44-45



conference papers



Pilgrim, D.A., Parry, D.M., Rimmer, S (2001)
The underwater optics of Abiss (Autonomous Benthic Image Scaling System). OceanOptics 6, Institute of Physics, London, 9th October 2001

Abstract
Almost since the invention of the first camera, photographic techniques have been used to observe and record underwater phenomena and events. Systematic analysis of underwater photographs has become commonplace since the 1940s, indeed, this is still the only way in which mankind has ever seen all but a fraction of one percent of the world's seabeds. With the development of the video camera and personal computer, sophisticated digital image display systems and analysis techniques have become readily accessible to the oceanographer and underwater scientist. These include 3-D imaging, underwater holography and photogrammetry packages. However, most underwater video footage is obtained by divers and ROVs (remotely operated vehicles) and is, simply, a visual record of the underwater scene. The major problem in the most fundamental interpretation of these video recordings is their unknown scale and perspective, this latter producing an unknown variation in scale over the image. This problem may be solved by the use of structured lighting, produced by an array of laser diodes attached to the underwater camera. The diodes project a pattern of spots onto the recorded seabed image, and this pattern is clearly distorted in a systematic way which depends upon the image range and oblique angle of perspective. Subsequent computer analysis of the spot positions allows calculation of range and perspective angle, and this information may be used to scale any part of the image and/or reconstruct the image in 'plan view'. Abiss (Autonomous Benthic Image Scaling System), a simple and inexpensive 5-spot system, has been built at the University of Plymouth, mounted on an ROV and used in a number of seabed surveys in Plymouth Sound and Loch Creenan. In this paper we review the approach taken in programming the 3-D geometry of the structured lighting and a number of optical problems encountered, including the choice of array size, number and colour of diodes, camera lens optics, image processing and analysis, and system calibration.


Pilgrim, D.A., Duke A., Parry, D.M., Symes, G (2000)
Diver/UUV underwater measurement system. 3rd DERA Image Processing and Interpretation Conference, DERA Malvern, April 2000.

Abstract
Sea mines laid by an aggressor pose a deadly threat to both military operations and commercial shipping. Advances in technology have transformed relatively simple devices into a diverse range of complex and intelligent weapon systems. An important requirement when investigating a contact is to confirm that it is indeed a mine and to derive features such as overall size, protrusions, graphical descriptors and the like. This acquisition of visual intelligence assists the subsequent process of deciding what action needs to be taken. Video images obtained by sub-sea cameras have variable perspective and scale but this problem may be solved by the use of structured lighting comprising an array of diode lasers. A 5-spots laser system is being developed jointly between University of Plymouth and DERA Bincleaves for use by divers and unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). An important aspect of this research is the ongoing development and optimisation of verifiable measurement and sampling techniques, which may then be employed with confidence in hostile waters.


Pilgrim, D.A. (1999)
Analysis and presen
tation of underwater video recordings. Hydro '99, Plymouth, January 1999.

Abstract
Photographic and video techniques are widely used to observe and record underwater phenomena and events. Through the exploitation of modern technology these techniques may be adapted to develop systems that not only record but measure subsea events. Three examples of such sysytems, under development in the University of Plymouth, Institute of Marine Studies Underwater Science Laboratory, are described and explained .


Pilgrim, D.A. (1997)
Using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) for underwater scientific observations. Coastal and ocean modelling, Valletta, Malta, November 1998.

Abstract
Almost since the invention of the first camera, photographic techniques have been used to observe and record underwater phenomena and events. Systematic analysis of underwater photographs has become commonplace since the 1940s, indeed, this is still the only way in which mankind has ever seen all but a fraction of one percent of the world's seabeds. With the development of the video camera and personal computer, however, sophisticated digital image display systems and analysis techniques have become readily accessible to the oceanographer and underwater scientist. These include real time 3-D imaging, underwater holography and photogrammetry packages. By fitting an underwater camera with an array of low power lasers which project a pattern of small spots onto the underwater scene, images are produced which are easily scaled and analysed using simple digital analysis programs. As mankind's industrial, mining, technological and aquacultural ambitions move further offshore into ever increasing depths of water, there will be a great and growing need for the development of these systems and techniques.  


Ewins, N.J. and Pilgrim, D.A. (1997)
The evaluation of PhotoModeler for use under water. Proceedings of the Fourth SUT Underwater Science Symposium, Newcastle upon Tyne,November 1997, 135-145.

Abstract
There is a need, in archaeological site investigation, to survey in three dimentions. Whilst there are a number of well established techniques for doing this under water they are, in general, either difficult, time consuming and limited to amateur diving depths or are prohibitively expensive.
A possible alternative is the PhotoModeler system which involves only the aquisition of a number of photographs of an object from different directions with a single camera, (film or video, diver-held oir ROV). These images are then analysed by the PhotoModeler PC program which generates a three dimentional model, exportable to CAD etc. It is claimed by the producers of PhotoModeler that the package is widely used in on-land survey, and this paper describes the experiments conducted at the Underwater Science Laboratory, Institute of Marine Studies, University of Plymouth, to assess the viability of the system for underwater work. It was concluded that the package is suitable for this type of work, though great care must be taken to keep errors acceptably low.

articles


Pilgrim, D.A. (1999) Making measurements from video
. International Ocean Systems Design, 4-7

Abstract
Photographic and video techniques may now be adapted to develop systems that not only record but measure subsea events. Three such sytems are under development in the University of Plymouth, Institute of Marine Studies Underwater Science Laboratory


invited lectures


Pilgrim, D.A (2003)
Abiss (Autonamous Benthic Image Scaling System): a new tool for benthic surveys
(1) University of Queensland, Australia, 11th March, 2003

(2) National University of Singapore, Singapore; 2nd April 2003


Pilgrim, D.A (2002) Acquisition and analysis of benthic photographs
. FAO MedSudMed Meeting, Sliema, Malta, december 2002.


Pilgrim, D.A. (2002) The University of Plymouth Abiss (Autonomous Benthic Image Scaling System)
CEFAS Symposium: Autonomous Measurements in the Marine Environment, London, 26th April, 2002.


Pilgrim, D.A., Remmer.S (2001)
The University of Plymouth Abiss (Autonomous Benthic Image Scaling System) Plymouth Geographical Association, Athenaeum Theatre, Plymouth, 21st September 2001.

Abstract
Almost since the invention of the first camera, photographic techniques have been used to observe and record underwater phenomena and events. Systematic analysis of underwater photographs has become commonplace since the 1940s, indeed, this is still the only way in which mankind has ever seen all but a fraction of one percent of the world's seabeds. With the development of the video camera and personal computer, however, sophisticated digital image display systems and analysis techniques have become readily accessible to the oceanographer and underwater scientist. These include real time 3-D imaging, underwater holography and photogrammetry packages. By fitting an underwater camera with an array of low power lasers which project a pattern of small spots onto the underwater scene, images are produced which are easily scaled and analysed using simple digital analysis programs. As mankind's industrial, mining, technological and aquacultural ambitions move further offshore into ever increasing depths of water, there will be a great and growing need for the development of these systems and techniques.


Pilgrim, D.A (2001)
Development of underwater video techniques at the University of Plymouth, UK Russian State Hydrometeorological University, St Petersburg, 22nd July 2001

Abstract
Video techniques are widely used to observe and record underwater phenomena and events. Through the exploitation of modern technology these techniques may be adapted to develop systems that not only record but also measure subsea events. Two of the systems developed at the University of Plymouth are described. The first is Abiss (Autonomous Benthic Image Scaling System) used in the analysis of seabed images of varying perspective caused by an unknown angle of view, camera zoom and range. Abiss comprises a structured lighting system (diode laser array) and an associated software package, Benthic Imager. The second system is Viza (Video Zooplankton Analyser) which is able to identify zooplankton in real time by shape recognition of the silhouette images produced by these organisms as they pass through a flow cell in the system.



 

poster presentations


Remmer,S. and Pilgrim, D.A. (2002) An underwater object scaling system using structured lighting
. Seventh International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments, Miami, Florida, USA, May 20-22, 2002.


Parry, D.M., Kendall, M.A., Pilgrim, D.A., Jones, M.B. (2001) Quantitative spatial and temporal distribution patterns of bioturbating megafauna using a Remotely Operated Vehicle.
36th European Marine Biology Symposium. 17-22 September, Menorca, Spain.


Parry, D.M., Kendall, M.A., Jones, M.B., Pilgrim, D.A. (2000) Image scaling aids identification of sediment structures observed by Remotely Operated Vehicles.
Porcupine Marine Natural History Society Meeting: Approaches to Identification. 17-19 March, Plymouth, United Kingdom.

This page last updated: 19 January 2017